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The conservative attack on Avatar.

How Tom Cruise became America’s last action hero

In the s, social psychologist Stanley Milgram carried out a controversial experiment on obedience to authority. He asked participants to give a series of electric shocks of increasing voltage to a test subject who was actually an actor whenever he gave a wrong answer to a memory test. Using this setup, we could ethically test how humans respond to authority. The participants in the experiment nevertheless had difficulty with shocking the avatar: Although 85 percent of them completed the task, they exhibited measurable signs of stress.

However, when we looked more closely at the actual interactions that people had with the virtual victim, we found that participants were trying to cheat, even if unconsciously, by giving cues to the avatar, signaling the right answers with a louder voice tone. In our case we had clear evidence of a kind of disobedience among our participants. Essentially, they were disobeying or quietly resisting while appearing to follow orders.

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However, those who resist authority also pay a big psychological toll. Even in the act of apparently obeying, they will follow orders that go against their own moral principles. Our experiments were presented to participants as a way to contribute to scientific research, and two in three of the participants who identified less strongly with that goal were more likely to quit.

By contrast, those who declared themselves supporters of scientific advancement continued to carry out their duties.

The conservative attack on Avatar.

Interestingly however, the supporters of science were also the ones who tried harder to help the avatar. We believe that by the act of helping, they reduced their levels of stress and were able to continue their task longer, however harmful the task was to the victim. This finding suggests that people inflict harm despite the fact that they might actually care about their victims. In our experiment, we did not get that far, but measured the stress levels before and after the experiment.

At the end, even those who had cheated showed an increased stress level. The inhabitants of the planet Pandora in the film, the Na'vi, live in harmony with their natural surroundings and have strong faith in the powers of their goddess Eywa. But the RDA corporation, run by humans, sets up shop on Pandora to exploit its mineral resources.

It will do anything to obtain Pandora's "nobtainium," even if that means destroying the Na'vi, their habitat and their faith. Some conservative writers say they are outraged by strong religious undertones in the movie. Other themes in the movie have also been the subject of conservatives' ire. Travis Kavulla , an African Studies scholar, argues that the movie's depiction of Na'vi as helpless victims gives a false sense that natives are always in harmony with nature.

‘Paula’ Avatar to Ease Communication between the Hearing and Deaf

It's just ridiculous to think that most indigenous people are kind of hunter gatherers who don't impact their environment. The movie also takes takes a swipe at the Bush administration's war in Iraq, even drawing parallels to the Vietnam war, a move that Goldberg dubbed a cliche. It's that it's so lame.

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The guy is not even president anymore. It's bravery at the cheapest for Cameron to think, if he thinks that, this took courage on his part to make. John Podhoretz , writing a critique for the Weekly Standard, goes so far as to call the movie "anti-American. So it is a deep expression of anti-Americanism-kind of," Podhoretz writes.

This is certainly not the first time a Hollywood movie has been accused of liberal bias, or criticized for its political undertones. Some critics such as Kavulla say the movie, which is mainly about the 3D special effects, should not be taken seriously. But at the same time, some conservatives say they cannot discount its impact on pop culture.

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Nonetheless they are talking about their excitement It is a reinvented way of watching a movie. Those on the political right don't see the movie as controversial -- in fact it may be the opposite, Goldberg said -- but there is a certain amount of sensitivity about these issues among conservatives.

It's incredibly trite and cliched," said Goldberg said. For his part, Cameron has been unabashedly open about his political intentions. The movie is about how greed and imperialism tend to destroy the environment, in this case the "pristine" environs of Pandora, Cameron said in an interview with NBC's Today show.

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