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Urban Public Finance (Fundamentals of Pure and Applied Economics) (Vol 10)

Agricultural growth accounts for 66 percent of the reduction in overall poverty, 55 percent of the reduction in urban poverty, and 74 percent of the reduction in rural poverty. The growth of industrial sector — which has been the emphasis of Indonesian development strategy — has statistically significant impact only on reducing urban poverty. Even so, the impact is much smaller than the impact of agricultural growth. This implies that efforts to push productivity and growth in the agricultural sector — where most of the poor have a livelihood — is the most effective channel to reduce poverty.

Furthermore, redirecting industrialization process to put more emphasis on developing integrated agro-industries with strong linkages to agriculture will certainly help in reducing poverty. Anand, Sudhir and S. Aswicahyono, H. Deaton, Angus. Foster, J. McLeod, Ross H. McLeod and Ross Garnaut eds.


Quizon, J. Adelman and S. Abstract: Now-a-days waste management seems to be a challenge in every city right from its inception to its disposal. Waste management involves the collection of waste from its source, transportation and its disposal at the respective location. Garbage collections bins are flooded due to incremental increase in waste which emits foul odour causing health hazards, diseases and environmental pollution. In this paper, we survey on the mechanisms available for scientific collection and disposal of waste along with its challenges.

From the descriptive survey we analyse the present scenario in waste management. It is explicit that issues are prevailing in policies and technologies available for the treatment and management of wastes and insufficient trained manpower to collect, dispose and process the wastes.

Abstract: Nowadays health connected issues are terribly high, and it can'tbe simply foretold earlier to avoid complications. The previous studies related to predict heart problems have used several features which has been collected from patients. The accuracy level of prediction and the number of features is very less in the previous systems.

To improve the prediction accuracy the planned system, consider additional range of options and implements a Weighted Principle Analysis WPCA and changed Genetic Algorithm GA The planned technique helps the medical domain for predicting HD with its numerous co-morbid types of heart diseases conditions. The system has 2 main objectives, that are rising diagnosing accuracy and reducing classification delay. The WPCA represents with the effective cacophonous criteria that has been applied into the genetic Algorithm. The system effectively identifies the disease and its sub types, the sub type which is referred as the level of class such as normal and mild or extreme.

Using combinatorial methods from data mining decision making has been simplified and the proposed work achieved Abstract: In agriculture, irrigation plays an important role. Normally, we have many issues in irrigating the plants. Over irrigation of plants leads to decay of plants and low irrigation of plants leads to retardation of crop growth, late flowering. The proposed model build an automatic irrigation system approach using Arduino in which moisture sensor senses the moisture content present in the soil. According to the moisture content level water will be pumped to the soil by the DC motor.

The sensor continuously monitors the soil moisture content, when it reaches the required water tank level will be used for planting water and its water level will be continuously monitored from an Ultrasonic sensor using distance value. If the range goes beyond the certain level, then the system will send message notification to the user mobile. By this proposed AI —SH approach the user can know the pouring method of water for home plants. Keywords: soil moisture sensor, ultra sonic sensor, motor driver circuit. Cloud computing gives numerous advantages and unparalleled convenience for the cloud customers to get the on-demand access of cloud provided that the local infrastructure limitations need not be taken into account.

While accessing data, there may be a co-operative relationship among different users which makes sharing and exchanging of information, a tedious process. The view of current security solutions is mainly on authentication to apprehend that the data of an individual cannot be approached illegally, but there arose a privacy issue when a user request for data sharing to other users through cloud server.

In the proposed system, a privacy-preserving authentication protocol is employed to prevent the above privacy complications. In this technique, authority of data through shared access is achieved by the process of sending anonymous access request which gives privacy to the cloud users. Access control is based on attributes so that the cloud users can only access their own authorized data fields. Advanced encryption standard algorithm is used to achieve data anonymity and data protection.

The proposed method dealt with secure privacy preserving data access authority is attractive for multiple-user in cloud real time storage. Keywords: Cloud computing, authentication protocol,shared authority, privacy preservation, data anonymity.

In QA system, once the question is posted by the client, the system need to find meaning of the words such as synonyms and provide correct answer to the user. It is very difficult to find answer from large collection of information available in Internet. The process involved in QA is question generation, answer filtering and store in the database.

The proposed approach is used to retrieve the answers for the posted query in an efficient manner and reduce time consumption. WAD approach is used to analyze the answer and rank the accuracy of the answer with the existing method. Abstract: This paper analyzes the forest cover in India as a whole and also in terms of states.

The species growth with respect to the forest cover and the survival of species based on their Kingdoms of Classification is studied. The dependencies between the forest covers of India with the flora of India is studied. This also studies the wasteland cover and the areas of improvement for the betterment of Indian flora and vegetation. This also checks for relationships, dependencies and variations between flora and fauna to obtain patterns for improving the Indian Ecosystem. Keywords: environment, prediction analysis, forest cover, Deforestation, Tiger population. Abstract: To study about the learning outcome and measuring the same has considerable amount of complexity.

This study focuses on measuring and assessing students learning outcome. Assessment primarily starts with the measurement of outcomes. It can be measured directly or indirectly. This study will formulate a strategy to improve the success rate of the students. Keywords: outcomes, learning outcome, program outcome, assessment and students behavior. When the boat is on board, its position is tracked and checked if it is crossing the border.

Once the boat is about to cross the safe border and enter into the prohibited zone, a notification is sent to the control unit in the land and a buzzer is also set in the control unit. The control unit controls and turns the boat into the safe side.

Selected Works

The position of the boat is tracked by using the GPS Global Positioning System and every movement of the boat can be noted. By using a GSM module, the boat can be connected to the control unit in the land. The position of boat is sent to the control unit using a GSM module via cloud. When the border is crossed by the boat, the buzzer goes on in the control unit and the boat is immediately controlled. Abstract: E-commerce systems plays the vital role in Information Technology and communication applications. Compared to the technology of olden days, people now days buys their required products and services from the online service transactions.

Buying and selling products are frequently increasing factor for both the buyer and seller. From the customer point of view searching of quality products with the consumable cost is a big challenge. The proposed system Unique Identical weightage UIW system reveals about the customer searching analysis using the weightage system approach.

The UIS analysis system will track the identity of the customer queries with respect to the searching categories. The proposed system will make the classification based on the customer searching criteria. Ranking weightage is allotted based on the searching method and finally produce the judgemental range of searching choices to the customer. The advantage of the system will provide quick searching solutions to the customer. This method outperforms the existing system in reducing the time wasted by a customer for searching a product.

Abstract: In this current era, social media plays a important role in data exchange, sharing their thoughts. Emotional Effect of a person maintains an important role on their day to day life. Sentiment Analysis is a procedureof analyzing the opinions and polarity of thoughts of the person. Twitter is a main platform on sharing the thought's, opinion and sentiments on different occasions. Twitter Sentimental Analysis is method of analyzing the emotions from tweets message posted by user in twitter. Tweets are helpful in extracting the Sentimental values from the user.

The data provide the Polarity indication like positive, negative or unbiassed values. The proposed system is to analyze the sentiment of the people using python, twitter API, Text Blob Library for processing text. As the results it helps to analysis the post with a better accuracy.

Abstract: The Real Time Environments that are very difficult and dangerous to practice can be simulated using Virtual Reality VR and canbe used as a learning tool. The use of immersive VR supports to demonstrate the three dimensional virtual environment in detail and helps the user to learn about the concepts of fire hazards and practice escape mechanisms in fire surrounded situations. A game like interface techniques is used for VR fire-safety training interaction in order to improve motivation for learning and were encouraged to explore the virtual world.

People interact with objects and navigate through environment that are virtually present with full control using a VR controller which gives a feel of an active user. The identification of few fire hazards circumstances at home and office environments are performed based on which a similar virtual environment is designed to practice fire safety and escape techniques. A PASS training for fire extinguishers was included as a core concept of the project.

Knowing these techniques in times of trouble could be really helpful and mandatory. Almost all the system has some kind of authentication which allows the user to access their data. Most of these system are limited to one layer of security like textual passwords. The authentication using textual password is famous as it is straightforward. But the simplicity comes at the cost of vulnerability. These authentication methods are prone to spyware and dictionary attacks.


As the systems are becoming more powerful than ever, it is easy to launch a dictionary attack. Another form of attack is to monitor the request and response between the client and server. It is possible when the attacker has gained physical access to the communication medium. Intruder just has to analyze the packets to figure out the delicate information such as password. There are many networks that cannot afford any kind of breach. Steganography, the art of hiding the existence of message by embedding the secret message into another medium, can be exploited in authentication system.

Steganography has emerged as technology with various applicationwhich introduced steganalysis, the process to detect the hidden information. The user has to undergo face recognition as well as textual authentication. Since any of the request and response between server and client will not have password in plain text form, it is not possible to breach the password. The system is combination of face recognition and steganography.

Keywords: Remote Authentication, Steganography, Cryptography. The main reason for this problem is lack of proper networking among students and professors. It is not possible for a single student to be expert in all these fields. This paper focuses on the various recommendation approaches that are used for this application in delivering the contents to the target audience. Abstract: Communication between living beings is more essential with the fundamentals of digital forgeries to make an effort to develop a step by step procedure for image detection in a powerful way with the use of various media elementary pictorial representation of any information can be easily manipulated using editing software.

Communication between users is carried by image transmission, in which major issue is security that is without any alteration. Image forgery detection is technique for detecting any unauthorized process in image. In compared with existing, use fuzzy classifier to accurate results for comparison instead of SVM classifier. Weintroduced detection method against image splicing, that is joining of two different image fragments. This detection is brought by using conflicting of illuminating colours in whole image.

Using illuminate estimation, extracting features such as shape and colour of images and finally classified in Fuzzy logic classifier. Performance of forgery detection is evolved as accuracy using testing process. From our experimental results, conclude that high accuracy provided by extract combining shape and colour features of image, which compared with other.

Abstract: In agriculture Expert systems are used in a wide range of operation. Farmers mostly depend on agricultural specialists for decision making. These systems are used by farmers and others without the knowledge of computerusage. In this paper we present the part of expert system in agriculture and its approaches in crop production. It is a knowledge build system for information generation with existing knowledge. This supports farmers in identifying economically strong decision for crop management.

On considering the success of expert system, various such systems were developed. IOT plays a key role in agriculture. The abstraction of IOT and its architecture is discussed in this paper. Expert system builds on Internet of Things IOT uses the input data gathered in real time is proposed in this paper. In this paper, an expert system in cloud based infrastructure is used. In the proposed system, Kalman filter KF is used in sensor node to minimize the noise in sensor fusion.

This paper illustrates the need of expert system in agriculture and the advantages of IOT based farming. Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent form of diabetic eye disease. It will typically affects people who have diabetes for a significant number of years. Retinopathy becomes particularly dangerous because it will affect all diabetics and, increases the risk of blindness, when it is left untreated. To avoid total loss of sight the ophthalmologist will treat the patients by sophisticated laser treatment,if detected effectively at an initial period.

One of the main symptoms of initial stage of diabetic retinopathy is analysis of Hard exudates. At the early stage, using mathematical morphology the exudates are identified and removed. Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Mathematical morphology, Fuzzy logic. The samples characterized by physical, optical and magnetic properties. The photoluminescence range of nanoparticles appears as wide glow in green visible region that shows the possibility of creating photonic gadgets.

The calculated bandgap Eg values is 2. Magnetic hysteresis study of magnetic field B indicate the material has good magnetic property similar to intensity magnetization permeability. Abstract: In this fast-growing economy, the number of vehicle users increases exponentially demanding more parking space. Pervasive presence of smart phone encourages users to prefer mobile application based solutions.

Growth of IoT has paved way for integration of mobile devices, wireless communication technologies and mobile Applications. This paper proposes an IoT based Smart parking system that integrates with mobile Application. It provides a comprehensive parking solution both for the user and owner of the parking space. Features are provided for reserving a parking space, authenticating a reserved user, identifying nearest free space depending on the size of the vehicle, navigating to the parking slot and computes accounts information on daily, weekly and monthly basis. IR sensors are used to identify if a parking spot is free.

Availability of a free slot with its location information is transmitted using WIFI module technology, microcontroller and wireless communication technology to the server and is retrieved though a mobile application. RFID tag attached to a vehicle is used to authenticate a user who reserves the parking slot on a hourly, daily, weekly or monthly basis. A scheduling algorithm is used to identify the nearest free slot based on the size of a vehicle.

The owner of the parking space can get the analytics of the number of free and available slots for a given period, the occupancy rate on week days and weekend and the amount collected for a given period and can use it for fixing variable parking fees. The mobile application is designed to provide rich customer experience. Abstract: The film industry plays a major role in the planetary or world-wide economy. It is the symbolic contributor to the global economy. Every year more than hundreds to thousands of movies are released to the public audience with the hope that the movies getting released will be the next block buster.

According to the movie industry statistics, six to seven movies out of ten movies gets unprofitable, only one third of the movie gets success. The producers, studios, investors, sponsors in the movie industry are alike interested in predicting the box office success of the movie. This paper work is on analysing the film genre, the release date around holidays, the release month of movies, the languages and country with more movies from the movie review dataset. There are attributes country, languages, genre, movie release date, budget and revenue taken from the dataset and the derived attributes release month of the movie derived from release date of movie and profit from budget and revenue is analysed to determine the movie performance.

The analysed data is plotted in graphs for statistical observation of the movie success. Keywords: predicting box office success, block buster, film genre, genre count, release month, movie profit, and movie review dataset. Abstract: The human brain which is the central processing unit of the human machine is responsible for multiple tasks such as perception, cognition, attention,emotion, memory and action.

Providing methodologies to access to human emotions would be a key for successful human machine interaction. Understanding Brain Computer Interface BCI techniques to identify the emotions also help in aiding people to interact with the world like a common man. Many techniques were devised to identify the human emotions of which usage of EEG signals to classify the emotions as happiness, fear, anger and sadness were found promising.

These emotions are evoked by many means such as showing subjects pictures of smile and cry facial expressions, by hearing to emotionally mixed audios or by watching videos and at time combination of these. This paper is a survey of all the optimized methods to filter the EEG signal and comparative study of the various classification methods used to classify the emotions is carried out and a multimodal classification technique which makes use of EEG signals and at the same time efficiency is measured with Natural Language Processing NLP is proposed for improving the accuracy.

Abstract: Most of the people these days use mobile phones for almost everything. Many technologies have been used in a smartphone which provides a variety of services like Social networking, payment, marketing etc. A new way of marketing which uses BLE beacon technology can be incorporated with a mobile application which is used to send personalized notifications to customers using the Indoor positioning system using Beacons. RFID technology is accurate indoors but the range is too small which is only up to 15 meters. The Hardware used here is a beacon which transmits a signal which contains a Unique ID at regular intervals which can be detected within a certain range.

A custom Mobile App is developed which receives the signal while in a certain proximity of the beacon and is programmed to calculate the distance. Abstract: After Personal computing, main frame and client server Cloud computing is a fifth generation computing. It focuses on resource sharing and computations and is a network based environment. The data will be stored enduringly information in servers on the internet and cached momentarily on clients. It has the advantage of sinking cost by allocation of computing and resource storage.

Azure, EC2 Application og Google, Aneka are the processor that utilize for its operation for effective computations. The necessary resources are utilized by user through the internet. The will be raise in confidentiality issue when provider depends on other provider for resource utilizing. As there is no limits in cloud computing the data can be physically positioned anywhere in the globe.

Hence the problems regarding data authentication and privacy are in raise. The privacy can be obtained by imposing access policy or by encrypting using cryptographic tools. Without leaking the important information of the owner the safety can be made ensured by safeguarding from hackers.

In this proposed work a implementation authentication and authentication based on data access module and anonymity. Abstract: The air pollution rates now a days are drastically increasing in all the developed and the developing countries which requires a more portable and cost effective solution. The proposed system includes the design for monitoring air pollution and creating awareness among the public.

This paper aims at using IOT along with cloud to make the services real time and faster. The proposed system is installed in a particular locality where there is acute air pollution. The level of each hazardous pollutant is monitored at periodic intervals. The Air Quality Index AQI for the observed pollutants is determined and awareness is created among the public through an android app which displays the level of each observed pollutant and also the air quality index in that particular location. Thus the quality of air in that area can be understood by the public by viewing the concentration of the gases in both numerical and graphical format.

Further this system is to be extended in future by allowing the public to register themselves in an app which pushes weekly or monthly air quality report through message which reaches the user as a notification that is more comfortable in access. Though now-a-days open defecation is reducing by the open toilets constructed by the government, the maintenance of these toilets in hygienic manner is still an issue. The usage of the public toilets is reduced due to the improper maintenance of the toilets and foul smell from it. Moreover, the peoples started using the open places which leads to many health problems.

One of the health issue caused is the diarrhoea. In India, this disease kills one child per minute. Hence, the issue of maintenance of the public toilet has to be dealt seriously. In this paper, we survey on the technologies proposed for modern public toilet facilities. Abstract: Indian premier league is one of the most popular cricket league. So, it attracts more cricket admirers.

Bowlers are the one of key players for the every team especially in twenty — twenty cricket. Their performance change the match result. Performance parameters chosen are number of wickets, number of maiden overs bowled, economy rate and number of boundaries. Among the various parameters, economy rate and wickets are the significant for the match. We also analysed which bowler performed consistently and also whom performed well in good batting pitch. With the grand new push towards Digital India and low cash transactions, mobile transactions including mobile payments have seen significant thrust in the recent times.

Many startups as well as major enterprises and government has been continually providing and promoting many mobile apps for variety of transactions from multimedia messaging to digital payments. Abstract: The present study is focussed to explore the dominant factors on metal removal of self-lubricating composite materials through rotating disc.

The proposed composite material is reinforced with fly ash and Boron Nitride. Composites samples are processed by liquid metal stir casting route. AA matrix alloy was reinforced with Five, Ten and Fifteen weight percentage of fly ash as hard reinforcement particles and five percentages. Levels of Boron Nitride as the second stage fortification particles in the composite material. Ninety percentage of hardness value has been correlated with tensile strength of the composite material.

The hardness of the amalgamated specimens are experimented, test results shows that BHN values are significantly higher than the structural material. Dry sliding wear behavior of test samples are experiment with pin-on-disc apparatus. Affecting parameters of load on pin, weight level of support content and sliding speed on amount of wear was tested. Formation of trials through DOE approach utilizing Taguchi technique was embraced to break down the exploratory outcomes.

Because of Taguchi investigation, mix of most appropriate qualities is accounted for. Motion to-commotion proportion and examination of change ANOVA is been utilized to explore the impact of process parameters on wear rate. Abstract: Assessment is an essential part in determining the level of attainment of education.

In spite of availability of several formal and informal methods, Computer Based Assessment CBT is predominantly used for very large scale assessments. Adaptive Testing has better estimation capabilities if the standard of its items questions match the ability of the candidate. Items that are too simple or too difficult give unpredictable reactions and can't give much information about the ability of the student.

It is therefore essential to select items from the large pool so that the selected item gives maximum information about the ability of the student. This paper reviews the various methods for the item selection during the computerized adaptive testing. Keywords: Computer Adaptive Testing, Item selection approaches. Abstract: The incubators in most of all the hospitals require a device for monitoring the ambient temperature in order to ensure the prevention of illness or issues related to growth in new babies.

The concept of temperature monitoring is said to affect the environmental condition of the incubator based on several external factors. The technique of cloud computing through Ubidots software can be used to analyze the variation in temperature of the incubator. This also shows that the alert system can be incorporated for sensing the rise in temperature and indicating the same to hospital users. The alert unit which has been developed and installed in the hospitals are provided with an option to become beneficial for most of the patients. Keywords: temperature monitoring; alert system; incubators; environmental condition; cloud computing; hospital zones.

Super plasticizer Conplast SP of 1. Specimens are casted for M 60 grade as per mix design using manufactured sand M sand as fine aggregate. Durability tests conducted includes rapid chloride penetration test, water absorption test, carbonation test and water permeability test. Scanning electron microscopic analysis was carried out to determine the development of micro structural configuration of the concrete.

Abstract: In the current scenario, the industries are implementing automation in every field works. Industries are trying to reduce the labor cost and processing time which is taken by the human. This proposed work will be helpful for handling the materials efficiently. That is, for picking the raw materials from the storehouse and carrying it on the vehicle and transporting to the workshop where it is being machined. To replace the labor cost and to reduce the processing time, this type of vehicle can be used.

The UGV picks the raw materials that had to be machined from the storehouse to the workshop where the machining processes are done. The robotic arm consists of 5 servo motors with the gripper at its end. The vehicle with three wheels is helpful for carrying the materials from one place to another place. Three IR sensors are used for detecting the black line on which the vehicle has to move. Sensor 1 and 2 are used for sensing the black line. Whenever it is sensed the vehicle has to move forward or left or right. The third sensor indicates the storehouse or the workshop.

The vehicle automatically starts and carries it to the workshop without any human interruptions. Hence, the proposed project is useful for carrying and transporting the raw materials and finished goods efficiently with the less consumption of time. Abstract: Heart diseases are taking on hands as the vital mortality deciding factor in the current era.

Most of the people around the world are experiencing a time-scheduled and stressful work life, which often leads to increase in the percentage of healthy people affected by heart diseases. It is mandatory to solve this raising issue by predicting the occurrence of the disease as earlier as possible with the help of variety of available solutions.

Machine learning techniques can be applied to analyze and predict whether a person is likely to have heart disease or not. In this paper, we made a detailed investigation on prediction accuracy rate of heart diseases using different supervised machine learning techniques, which will pave the way for researchers to choose the efficient technique s in order to design and develop clinical decision support systems that predicts the occurrence of heart diseases in people efficiently.

Abstract: The Industrial internet of Things IIoT is wide used to interconnect the industrial process with the cloud and it will be shared by many of users, this process variable which is measured from the plant will be controlled through the clout using industrial internet of things. This process will increases the reliability, sensitivity, linearity, high precision, effectiveness, sensible watching and management options in process industries. The proposed work gives the solution for the users to controlling the parameter by applying the IoT for the industrial level process system which is nothing but cylindrical tank system, watching and alter set point and controller parameters from remote places using cloud services.

In this paper, a simple arrangement of level process system prototype is considered for the experimental purpose and the PID control algorithm is selected as a controller part. Abstract: Micro-blogs are an approach for social media users to articulate their views and interests by posting the short messages Tweets as news.

In general, an enormous quantity of news tweets generated everyday for the person who does not have enough time to read all the online news based on their interest. The objective of the News Recommendation Systems NRS is to classify and filter out unrelated online news and to suggest only the relevant news to the users based on their preferences. This research article will present a wide-range of analysis about the social media NRS from various research articles in the literature by considering the approaches used for recommendation, various performance measures and the data sets used.

Abstract: The risingdemands to overcome the disadvantage of conventional MOSFET such as physical limitations due to its short channel effects has stimulated the development of a number of better device geometries and materials. Few of such novel devices are FinField Effect Transistor, Nanowire and FETs based on Carbon Nanotube, having characteristics like quasi two- as well as one-dimensional channel geometries for better electrostatics.

While a lot of these efforts aims only on building up high-performance devices, the making of a roadmap to forecast analog circuit performance added with the large scale integration for these technologies is essential. In this paper we have incorporated Junctionless gate all around TFET for analog circuit design, thus leading to ease of fabrication because of absence of doping concentration gradients for specific regions. In addition low power consumption is obtained by TFETs as they are less prone to second order effects. The common source low noise amplifier circuit has been designed using the device as well as MOSFET and their performances are analyzed using various parameters like gain and noise figure.

Saratha, Vijeta Iyer, R. References: Abbasbandy, S Nor Hanim Abd. L, Zaletnyik P and Lewis R. Borsuk, K. Theory of Retracts. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw. Dugundji, J. Allynand Bacon, Boston. Industrial Marketing Management Asia: McGraw-Hill; Bricknell L.

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